A callus (or callosity) is an especially toughened area of skin which has become relatively thick and hard as a response to repeated contact or pressure. In botany, the term is also used to announce a condition of thickened surfaces of leaves or other plant parts. Since repeated contact is required, calluses are most often found on hands or feet. Calluses are generally not harmful, but may sometimes lead to other problems, such as infection.
- Weight training or weight lifting without gloves can cause calluses on one’s upper palm.
- Drummers can also get them because of the rubbing of the sticks on their palms and fingers.
- String instrument players develop calluses where their fingers make contact with the strings, but these calluses are often desirable as they help alleviate the pain from the tension of the strings and make playing easier.
- Guitarists get them on their fingertips from rubbing them on guitar strings. This is considered desirable as it allows them to play longer without feeling pain in their fingers.
- Bassists often get calluses on the tips and pads of the fingers used to pluck the strings.
- Frequent use of a writing instrument may lead to a callus on the middle finger (or ring finger, depending on the finger the instrument is held on), commonly known as a “writer’s bump“.
- Rowers will form calluses on several areas of the hand because of the friction between the oar and the hand, but this is extremely desirable, as this is the only way to alleviate the pain while maintaining the proper grip. Similar effect applies to bicycle or scooter riders, who also tend to experience high friction while holding the handlebar grips.
- Shoes that fit tightly can often produce calluses on the feet.
- Dancers often develop calluses on the soles of their feet from dancing barefoot, which makes performing turns less difficult.
A corn (or clavus, plural clavi) is a specially-shaped callus of dead skin that usually occurs on thin or glabrous (hairless and smooth) skin surfaces, especially on the dorsa of toes or fingers. They can sometimes occur on the thicker palmar or plantar skin surfaces. Corns form when the pressure point against the skin traces an elliptical or semi-elliptical path, the center of which is at the point of pressure, gradually widening. If there is constant stimulation of the tissues producing the corns, even after the corn is removed or the pressure surgically removed, the skin may continue to grow as a corn.
The name corn comes from its appearance under the microscope. The hard part at the center of the corn resembles a barley hare, that is, a funnel with a broad raised top and a pointed bottom. Corn used to be a generic term for grain, and the name stuck. The scientific name is heloma (plural helomata). A hard corn is called a heloma durum, while a soft corn is called a heloma molle.
The place of occurrence differentiates between soft and hard corns. Hard corns occur on dry, flat surfaces of skin. Soft corns (frequently found between adjacent toes) stay moist, keeping the surrounding skin soft. The corn’s center is not soft, however, but indurated.
Although usually found on the foot (where the most pressure occurs), calluses can occur anywhere on the body as a reaction to moderate, constant “grinding” pressure. It is the natural reaction of the palmar or plantar skin.
For example, players of string instruments will develop calluses on their fingers with frequent play. This actually helps the player as the thicker skin protects the fingertips – extended play is often painful before the calluses appear. If a beginning player plays too hard, or with an extended amount of left- (especially) or right-hand pizzicato, however, a blister may be produced instead. Bass guitarists who play without a plectrum also face a period of discomfort and blistering of the fingertips until they develop calluses. Drummers can also develop a callus on their feet and hands. Calluses on the feet are more common in metal drummers, where double bass drumming is used more often. Use of older sticks will also cause callus on the palms and fingers of a drummer.
People with bunions may find painful calluses behind the second or third toe. These are caused by unequal pressure placed on the smaller toes. Such pressure-induced calluses can be very painful and often do not respond to trimming of the callus, soft materials, or orthotic devices. It is not the callus that causes pain, but rather the severe imbalance in the function of the foot that is taking its toll.
Shoes can produce corns by rubbing against the top of the toes or foot. Continued irritation may cause pain. Stretching the rubbing area of the shoe may reduce the pressure and stop the pain, but the corn may remain. If a toenail or a fingernail rubs against the skin, pinching it between surfaces for a period of time, a corn can form at the edge of the nail. These are difficult to treat because frequently the nail is the primary cause.
Sometimes a callus occurs where there is no rubbing or pressure. These hyperkeratoses can have a variety of causes. Some toxins, such as arsenic, can cause thick palms and soles. Some diseases, such as syphilis, can cause thickening of the palms and soles as well as pinpoint hyperkeratoses. There is a benign condition called keratosis palmaris et plantaris, which produces corns in the creases of the fingers and non-weight bearing spaces of the feet. Some of this may be caused by actinic keratosis, which occurs due to overexposure to sun or with age and hormonal shifts. Callus is often found on the ball of your foot but could be located in many other places on your body.
Free runners tend to develop very thick calluses on the fleshy pad under the fingers at the end of the palm, especially if they perform cat leaps and vaults due to the impact made against the obstacle.
Treatment of Callus
A common method, often done by a podiatrist, is to shave the calluses down, and perhaps pad them.
Most corns and calluses located under the foot are caused by the pressure of the foot bones against the skin, preventing it from moving with the shoe or the ground. While well-fitting shoes will help some of these problems, occasionally some other degree of intervention is required to completely rid the foot of the problem. The most basic treatment is to put a friction-reducing insole or material into the shoe, or against the foot. In some cases, this will reduce the painfulness without actually making the callus go away.
In many situations, a change in the function of the foot by use of an orthotic device is required. This reduces friction and pressure, allowing the skin to rest and to stop forming protective skin coverings.
Salicylic acid (0.5%-40%) can be used for two reasons, “(1) it decreases keratinocyte adhesion, and (2) it increases water binding which leads to hydration of the keratin.” 
Using a cutting instrument such as a knife to cut it away is dangerous because it can result in bleeding of the foot and infection.
At other times, surgical correction of the pressure is needed.
Carp  have been used in a northern Virginia spa to get rid of Callus.
People with diabetes face special skin challenges. Because diabetes affects the capillaries, the small vessels which feed the skin its blood supply, thickening of the skin increases the difficulty to supply nutrients to the skin. Additionally, the shear and pressure forces that cause corns and calluses may tear the capillaries, causing bleeding within the callus or corn.
Often, bleeding within the calluses is an early sign of diabetes, even before elevated blood sugars. Although the bleeding can be small, sometimes small pools of blood or hematoma are formed. The blood itself is an irritant, a foreign body within the callus that makes the area burn or itch. If the pool of blood is exposed to the outside, infection may follow. Infection may lead to ulceration. Luckily, this process can be prevented at several places, but such infections can become life-threatening. Diabetic foot infections are the leading cause of diabetic limb amputation.
Homeopathy Treatment for Callus
Keywords: homeopathy, homeopathic, treatment, cure, remedy, remedies, medicine
Homeopathy treats the person as a whole. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. The homeopathic medicines are selected after a full individualizing examination and case-analysis, which includes the medical history of the patient, physical and mental constitution, family history, presenting symptoms, underlying pathology, possible causative factors etc. A miasmatic tendency (predisposition/susceptibility) is also often taken into account for the treatment of chronic conditions. A homeopathy doctor tries to treat more than just the presenting symptoms. The focus is usually on what caused the disease condition? Why ‘this patient’ is sick ‘this way’. The disease diagnosis is important but in homeopathy, the cause of disease is not just probed to the level of bacteria and viruses. Other factors like mental, emotional and physical stress that could predispose a person to illness are also looked for. No a days, even modern medicine also considers a large number of diseases as psychosomatic. The correct homeopathy remedy tries to correct this disease predisposition. The focus is not on curing the disease but to cure the person who is sick, to restore the health. If a disease pathology is not very advanced, homeopathy remedies do give a hope for cure but even in incurable cases, the quality of life can be greatly improved with homeopathic medicines.
The homeopathic remedies (medicines) given below indicate the therapeutic affinity but this is not a complete and definite guide to the homeopathy treatment of this condition. The symptoms listed against each homeopathic remedy may not be directly related to this disease because in homeopathy general symptoms and constitutional indications are also taken into account for selecting a remedy. To study any of the following remedies in more detail, please visit the Materia Medica section at Hpathy.
None of these medicines should be taken without professional advice and guidance.
Homeopathy Remedies for Callus :
Acet-ac., agar., am-c., ant-c., arn., bar-c., bor., bov., bry., calc., calc-s., carb-an., caust., chin., coloc., cur., graph., hep., ign., lyc., lyss., nat-c., nat-m., nit-ac., nux-v., petr., ph-ac., phos., psor., ran-s., rhus-t., sep., sil., staph., sulph., ter.
- ^ Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An interactive approach to self care, 15 ed. p920