Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. Causes of atrophy include poor nourishment, poor circulation, loss of hormonal support, loss of nerve supply to the target organ, disuse or lack of exercise or disease intrinsic to the tissue itself. Hormonal and nerve inputs that maintain an organ or body part are referred to as trophic.
Atrophy is a general physiological process of reabsorption and breakdown of tissues, involving apoptosis on a cellular level. When it occurs as a result of disease or loss of trophic support due to other disease, it is termed pathological atrophy, although it can be a part of normal body development and homeostasis as well.
Examples of atrophy as part of normal development include shrinkage and involution of the thymus in early childhood and the tonsils in adolescence.
Atrophy of the breasts can occur with prolonged estrogen reduction, as with anorexia nervosa or menopause. Atrophy of the testes occurs with prolonged use of enough exogenous sex steroid (either androgen or estrogen) to reduce gonadotropin secretion. The adrenal glands atrophy during prolonged use of exogenous glucocorticoids like prednisone.
Disuse atrophy of muscles (muscle atrophy) and bones, with loss of mass and strength, can occur after prolonged immobility, such as extended bedrest, or having a body part in a cast (living in darkness for the eye, bedridden for the legs etc.). This type of atrophy can usually be reversed with exercise unless severe. Astronauts must exercise regularly to minimize atrophy of their limb muscles while they are in microgravity.
There are many diseases and conditions which cause atrophy of muscle mass. For example diseases such as cancer and AIDS induce a body wasting syndrome called “cachexia”, which is notable for the severe muscle atrophy seen. Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are congestive heart failure and liver disease.
During aging, there is a gradual decrease in the ability to maintain skeletal muscle function and mass. This condition is called “sarcopenia”, and may be distinct from atrophy in its pathophysiology. While the exact cause of sarcopenia is unknown, it may be induced by a combination of a gradual failure in the “satellite cells” which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival.
Dystrophies, myosities, and motor neuron conditions
Pathologic atrophy of muscles can occur due to diseases of the motor nerves, or due to diseases of the muscle tissue itself. Examples of atrophying nerve diseases include CMT (Charcot Marie Tooth syndrome) poliomyelitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease), and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Examples of atrophying muscle diseases include muscular dystrophy, myotonia congenita, and myotonic dystrophy.
In post-menopausal women, the walls of the vagina become thinner. The mechanism for the age-related condition is not yet clear, though there are theories that the effect is caused by decreases in estrogen levels.
It has been reported that Astemizole might prevent 97% of the muscle wasting that occurs in immobile, bedridden patients. Testing upon mice showed that it blocked the activity of a protein present in the muscle that is involved in muscle atrophy. However the concerns for the drug’s longterm effects on the heart preclude its routine use in humans for this indication, and further alternative drugs are being sought.
Homeopathy Treatment for Atrophy
Keywords: homeopathy, homeopathic, treatment, cure, remedy, remedies, medicine
Homeopathy treats the person as a whole. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. The homeopathic medicines are selected after a full individualizing examination and case-analysis, which includes the medical history of the patient, physical and mental constitution, family history, presenting symptoms, underlying pathology, possible causative factors etc. A miasmatic tendency (predisposition/susceptibility) is also often taken into account for the treatment of chronic conditions. A homeopathy doctor tries to treat more than just the presenting symptoms. The focus is usually on what caused the disease condition? Why ‘this patient’ is sick ‘this way’. The disease diagnosis is important but in homeopathy, the cause of disease is not just probed to the level of bacteria and viruses. Other factors like mental, emotional and physical stress that could predispose a person to illness are also looked for. No a days, even modern medicine also considers a large number of diseases as psychosomatic. The correct homeopathy remedy tries to correct this disease predisposition. The focus is not on curing the disease but to cure the person who is sick, to restore the health. If a disease pathology is not very advanced, homeopathy remedies do give a hope for cure but even in incurable cases, the quality of life can be greatly improved with homeopathic medicines.
The homeopathic remedies (medicines) given below indicate the therapeutic affinity but this is not a complete and definite guide to the homeopathy treatment of this condition. The symptoms listed against each homeopathic remedy may not be directly related to this disease because in homeopathy general symptoms and constitutional indications are also taken into account for selecting a remedy. To study any of the following remedies in more detail, please visit the Materia Medica section at Hpathy.
None of these medicines should be taken without professional advice and guidance.
Homeopathy Remedies for Atrophy :
Ars., bar-c., caust., chin., cupr., hep., kali-c., led., nux-v., phos., plb., sec.
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- ^ “Types of Atrophy” (html). Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
- ^ a b “Drug could stop muscle wasting’“, NetDoctor.co.uk (2006-05-25). Retrieved on 27 May 2006.
- ^ Wang X, Hockerman GH, Green Iii HW, Babbs CF, Mohammad SI, Gerrard D, Latour MA, London B, Hannon KM, Pond AL (May24 2006). “Merg1a K+ channel induces skeletal muscle atrophy by activating the ubiquitin proteasome pathway”. FASEB J 20: 1531. doi:10.1096/fj.05-5350fje. PMID 16723379.