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Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis, is a renal disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys. It may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood resp. protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute renal failure, or chronic renal failure. They are categorised into several different pathological patterns, which are broadly grouped into non-proliferative or proliferative types. Diagnosing the pattern of GN is important because the outcome and treatment differs in different types. Primary causes are ones which are intrinsic to the kidney, whilst secondary causes are associated with certain infections (bacterial, viral or parasitic pathogens), drugs, systemic disorders, etc.

Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is active inflammation in the glomeruli. Each kidney is composed of about 1 million microscopic filtering "screens" known as glomeruli that selectively remove uremic waste products. The inflammatory process usually begins with an infection or injury (e.g., burn, trauma), then the protective immune system fights off the infection, scar tissue forms, and the process is complete.

There are many diseases that cause an active inflammation within the glomeruli. Some of these diseases are systemic (i.e., other parts of the body are involved at the same time) and some occur solely in the glomeruli. When there is active inflammation within the kidney, scar tissue may replace normal, functional kidney tissue and cause irreversible renal impairment.

The severity and extent of glomerular damage—focal (confined) or diffuse (widespread)—determines how the disease is manifested. Glomerular damage can appear as subacute renal failure, progressive chronic renal failure (CRF); or simply a urinary abnormality such as hematuria (blood in the urine) or proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).

ETIOLOGY

An immunological disorder.

HISTORY OF

  • Streptococcal throat or skin infection.
  • Scabies with impetigo.
  • Mealsles.

AGE

  • Common in children.

SEX

  • Equal incidence.

CLINICAL FEATURES

SYMPTOMS

  • Onset: sudden.
  • Swelling of face in morning.
  • Gradually swelling of whole body.
  • Oliguria.
  • Haematuria.
  • Low grade fever.
  • Headache.
  • Weakness.
  • Anorexia.
  • Nausea, vomiting.
  • Constipation.
  • Dyspnoea.

SIGNS

  • Temperature: 38-38.5C.
  • Pulse: fast.
  • Blood pressure: raised.
  • Face: puffy.
  • Oedema: pitting.
  • Renal angle: may be tender.
  • Tonsils: enlarged, congested.
  • Heart: apex out, forceful.

COMPLICATIONS

  • Acute renal failure.
  • Hypertensive left ventricular failure.
  • Hypertensive encephalopathy.
  • Secondary infection.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT

  • Bed rest till haematuria, hypertension, fever, edema, ESR, subside.
  • Diet
    • Protein restriction.
    • Salt restriction.
    • Fluid restriction according to urinary output.
    • Diet consisting of glucose, barely water, rice, potatoes should be encouraged.

Homeopathic Treatment for Glomerulonephritis

Homeopathy treats the person as a whole. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. The homeopathic medicines are selected after a full individualizing examination and case-analysis, which includes the medical history of the patient, physical and mental constitution etc. A miasmatic tendency (predisposition/susceptibility) is also often taken into account for the treatment of chronic conditions. The medicines given below indicate the therapeutic affinity but this is not a complete and definite guide to the treatment of this condition. The symptoms listed against each medicine may not be directly related to this disease because in homeopathy general symptoms and constitutional indications are also taken into account for selecting a remedy. To study any of the following remedies in more detail, please visit our Materia Medica section. None of these medicines should be taken without professional advice.

Homeopathic Remedies

Aconite

?Incipient nephritis. Stinging and pressing pains, kidney region. Kidneys act but slightly: urine contains albumen and fragments of casts. Urine hot, dark; red, with white faeces: red and clear. Bloody urine. Also, urine suppressed or retained. Renal region sensitive, with shooting pains. Painful urging to urinate. Aconite has Fear: tosses about with anxiety. Attacks are sudden, violent. Ailments from fright, vexation, chill: cold winds.

Allium cepa

?Pains in renal region, and region of bladder very sensitive. Burning pressure in bladder, then in sacrum: pain in kidney region, more left side. Urine frothy and iridescent. Red.

Apis

?Pain in both kidneys (Bright’s disease). Renal pains; soreness; pressure on stooping. Pain left kidney. Suppression of urine. "Acute inflammatory affection of kidneys, with albuminuria, as in scarlet fever or diphtheria: or, after these, as a sequel to acute disease." Kent. "Inflammation of kidneys closes up the case" (Scarlet fever) "and kills off a good many in allopathic practice, never in homoeopathic hands." Kent. Typical Apis is thirstless: intolerant of heat.

Argentum nit.

Touching the kidney region increases the pain to the highest degree. Acute pain, kidneys, extends down ureters to bladder; worse slightest touch or motion, even deep inspiration. Typical Arg. nit. has apprehension. Gets diarrhoea from anticipation. Craves sweets, which disagree: salt. Is nervous: hurried: walks fast.

Arnica

?In inflammation of kidneys, bladder, even pneumonia: its mental state, and the sore bruised feeling all over the body would enable you to do astonishing work. Does not want to be touched. Horrors in the night. Horror of instant death. Chill followed by nephritic pains, nausea and vomiting. Piercing pains as from knives plunged into kidneys: chilly and inclined to vomit. Urine difficult, scanty, dark, with thick brown sediment. Suppression of urine.

Arsenicum

?Nephritis with stitches in renal region; on breathing or sneezing., Abscess of kidney. Uraemia, with vomiting, colic. Urine, dark-brown; dark yellow: turbid: mixed with blood and pus; greenish. Urine like thick beer; rotten smell. Suppression of urine. Albuminuria; fatty degeneration. Extreme restlessness, anxiety, prostration. Extreme restlessness, anxiety, prostration.

Aurum met.

?Kidneys hyperaemic, with pressure round waist, and increase of urine (Cardiac hypertrophy). Suppression or retention of urine. Haematuria. In Aur. all the natural healthy affections are perverted: he loathes life: is weary of life: longs to die; is suicidal. Absolute loss of enjoyment in everything.

Belladonna

?Stinging, burning pain, from region of kidneys down into bladder. Suppression. "No remedy has a greater irritation in the bladder and along the urinary tract." Bell. pains, clutch: come and go suddenly. Bell., typically, has redness, great heat to touch: dilated pupils.

Benzoic acid

?Kidney pains, which penetrate the chest on taking a deep breath. Sore pain in back: burning in left kidney; with drawing pain when stooping. Dull pain in kidneys; loins stiff. Urine of a very repulsive odour. Pungent. From the time of first passing it. "Urine on clothing scents the room." Contains mucus and pus. Strong, hot, dark-brown urine. Ocimum canum Kent gives this in black type for nephritis. Used in Brazil as a specific for diseases of kidneys, bladder and urethra. Crampy pain in kidneys. Turbid urine: saffron coloured. "Discharge of large quantities of bloody or thick purulent urine." Hansen. Urine with intolerable odour, like musk.

Berberis

?Soreness lumbar region and Kidneys. Can bear no pressure: no jar Has to step down carefully. Jar or jolt intolerable. Burning; burning stitches,loins and kidneys. Sore kidneys with urinary disturbances; and excessive deposits. "Little calculi form, start down ureter: pains run up kidney and down to bladder." Berb. has bubbling sensation, and pains that radiate from a point. "Pain in back a chief indication for Berberis."

Bryonia

?Inflammation and pain kidneys. Pinkish urinary deposits: uric acid crystals." Whenever he strains himself, lifting, or unusual motion, pain in kidneys; a rousing up of congestion and long-lasting pain. "After overheating or over exertion, he gets pain in the? back."

Cannabis Indica.

?Constant pain right kidney: sharp stitches both kidneys. Aching, burning, in kidneys keep him awake at night. Pain in Kidneys when laughing. (Hashish) has the most extravagant mental? symptoms; with exaggerations of time and space.

Cannabis sativa

?Ulcerative pain in Kidney regions. Sensation of soreness kidneys and bladder. Gonorrhoeal cases.

Cantharis

?The whole urinary organs and genitalia are in a state of inflammation and irritation. Discharge of bloody urine burns like fire. Intensity and rapidity are the features of this remedy. Dull pressing or paroxysmal cutting and burning pains in both kidneys: very sensitive to slightest touch. Urging to urinate. Painful evacuation, by drops, of bloody urine, or pure blood. Intolerable urging, before, during and after urination. Suppression. Violently acute inflammation or rapidly destructive.

Chelidonium

?Violent paroxysms of pain in kidneys, with intense headache, vertigo and syncope. Pain and tenderness kidney regions: sensitive to pressure even of clothing. Urine reddish, turbid, contains fibrin, flakes and sand. Characteristics. Pain under right shoulder angle. A great liver medicine: a right sided medicine.

Colchicum

?Pain in region of Kidneys. Hyperaemia. Nephritis; bloody, ink-like, albuminous urine. Dropsy after scarlatina. Urine like ink, after scarlatina. Urine burns when it passes. Suppression; retention. "The kidneys manufacture no urine: scanty urine with dropsy." "Chiefly in acute form of Bright’s disease."Characteristics? of? Colch. Smell painfully acute: nausea and faintness from smell of cooking. Loathing of food, sight and smell of it. Urine contains clots of putrid decomposed blood, albumin, sugar.

Crotalus horridus

?Nephritis albuminosa, in toxaemia, or pregnancy. Urine dark, smoky from admixture of fluid blood. Haematuria. Urine extremely scanty dark red with blood; jelly-like; green-yellow from much bile. One of our greatest remedies for sepsis. Black water-fever, urine like dark bloody jelly. Skin may be yellow to green: yellow colour of eyes.

May have haemorrhage from any and every part of body. Dark thin blood. Putridity. Even the most rapid and desperate cases.

Eupatorium purpureum.

Chronic nephritis. Dull, deep pain in kidneys: cutting pain. Suppression of urine.

Helleborus

?Post scarlet fever nephritis. Congestion of kidneys with extensive effusion of serum in abdominal cavity and tissue of lower extremities. Dropsy after scarlet fever with albumen and fibrin casts in urine. Suppression of urine; or urine highly albuminous, dark, no sediment; breathes easier lying down: acute dropsies. Urine scanty, dark, or smoky with decomposed blood with floating dark specks, like coffee grounds; albuminous, scanty. Top part clear. A great remedy in meningitis and hydrocephalus. Chewing motions: boring head into pillow. Automatic motion of one arm and leg. Staring: eyes wide open: insensible to light.

Helonias dioica.

?Burning sensation, Kidneys: can trace their outlines by the burning. Congestion and pain in kidneys with albuminuria. Right kidney extremely sensitive. Albuminuria acute or chronic. Usually tired but knows no reason. Burning, scalding pain when urinating. Affects the female genital organs. Eryngium aquat. Must urinate every five minutes: urine dripping away all the time, burning like fire.

Hepar

?Pain, kidneys, with incessant, painful urging and voiding a few drops of purulent urine. Emaciation: renal region sensitive to slightest touch. Violent fever with unquenchable thirst: diarrhoea and night-sweats. Croupous nephritis, suppurative? stage; fever; chills, alternating with burning heat. Has to wait for urine to pass: never able to finish urinating, some remains in bladder. Urine: dark red and hot: acrid: scalding: brown-red; last drops mixed with blood: on standing, turbid and thick: with greasy pellicle, or iridescent. Hepar is characteristically chilly, with hyperaesthesia mental and physical.

Kali ars

Tensive pain in left kidney: oedema left foot, extending to right and over whole body. Blackish urine, foams on shaking, on standing leaves a thick, reddish, slime. Stitches, dull, or sharp in both renal regions. Urine: the more one presses the less the flow.

Kali chlor

?Nephritis Frequent urging. Could only pass a few drops of bloody urine. Urine black and albuminous, greenish black. Prostration, coldness and easy haemorrhage. A cold day had "cooled off her blood".

Lachesis

?Stitches in kidneys, extending through ureters. Urine almost black: frequent, foamy, dark. Like coffee grounds: black, scanty after scarlatina. Loaded with albumen. Suppressed. No urine: no stool. Lach. is cyanosed: extremely sensitive to heat and Touch: especially about neck and abdomen. Sleeps into an aggravation. Typically, loquacious, suspicious and jealous.

Laurocerasus

?Urinary difficulties, with palpitation and gasping for breath, coming on by spells.

Suppressed urine: retention from paralysis of bladder. Involuntary urination.

Lycopodium

?Nephritis with characteristic Lyc. symptoms. One of the suppression of urine drugs.? 4 to 8 p.m. aggravation of symptoms. Desire for hot drinks: sweets. Characteristics, Red sand in (? clear) urine. Urine reddens and causes eruptions if allowed to remain in contact with parts (esp. babies). A (Lyc.) symptom: polyuria at night only.

Mercurius cor

?Tenesmus vesicae with intense burning. Urine suppressed, or hot urine passed drop by drop with much pain. Urine hot, burning, bloody: contains filaments, or flesh-like pieces of mucus: albuminous: shows granular fatty tubuli, with epithelial cells on their surface also in a state of granular fatty degeneration. Patient looks pinched; shrivelled; melancholy. A drug of violence: of inflammations with burning or desperate teuesmus: the "Never get done" remedy, in dysentery.

Mercurius

?Nephritis with diminished secretion of urine, with great desire to pass it. Urine saturated with albumin: dark brown: mixed with blood: with dirty white sediment. Haematuria, with violent and frequent urging to urinate. Urine dark-red; becomes turbid and fetid: smells sour and pungent: mixed with blood; white flakes; or as if

containing pus: flesh-like lumps of mucus: as if flour very dark: With burning and scalding sensation during urination as from raw surfaces. Worse at night: worse heat and cold; profuse, oily sweat, which does not ameliorate.

Natrum mur

Must be considered where there has been much malaria, and quinine. Tension and heat in renal regions. Polyuria with violent desire to urinate; inability to retain urine. Curious symptoms, unable to urinate unless alone.

Nux vomica

?Nephritis from stagnation of portal circulation. Bloating of abdomen. Pressure, heat, burning in loins and kidneys. Pains in small of back, as if bruised: so violent, he cannot move. Haematuria, after abuse of alcoholic stimulants, or drugs; suppression of haemorrhoidal or menstrual discharges. Pressure and distension in abdomen, loins, and kidneys. Spasmodic retention of urine: discharge drop by drop. Strangury after beer. Nux is irritable and chilly: with hyperaesthesia mental and physical.

Phosphorus

?"Bright’s disease, with sensations of weakness and emptiness." Albumen and exudation cells in urine. "Fatty degeneration of kidneys, liver and heart, with anaemia." Urine contains epithelial, fatty or waxy casts. Dropsy accompanied by diarrhoea. Uraemia, with acute atrophy brain and medulla. Haematuria: general dissolution of blood. Thirst: craves ices: worse lying on left side: fears thunder,

dark. Phos. is a profuse, easy bleeder. Blood bright.

Rhus tox

?Tearing pain in kidneys: oedema: after exposure to wet. After exposure to much dampness, oedema of face, feet, developing into general anasarca: urine full of albumen. Tearing pains small of back; urine contains blood and albumen. Urine voided slowly, paralytic weakness of bladder. Rhus is worse for Cold: Wet: washing; chill, and draught. Worse for first moving: but better for continued motion.

Sabina

Nephritis with retention, or discharge by drops with burning. Urine bloody and albuminous. Pain from lumbar region to pubes. Ardor urinae in rheumatic subjects. Metrorrhagia from plethora.

Sarsaparilla

?Neuralgia; attacks of most excruciating pain from right kidney downwards. Chronic nephritis. Renal colic and passage of gravel. Much pain at conclusion of passing water, almost unbearable. "Lyc. has red sand with clear urine; Sars. white sand with scanty, slimy or flaky urine." Nash. Urine dribbles while sitting.

Senecio aur.

Recurrent attacks nephritis, especially right kidney. With intense pain, fever. Every time he passed water, cried out in anguish. Clarke.

Silicea

Suppuration of kidneys: abscesses. "All sorts of suppurative conditions in the urinary tract; catarrh of the mucous membranes. Old inveterate catarrhs of bladder, with pus and blood in the urine. Bloody, purulent discharge, thick or curdy. Sil. is chilly: worse cold damp weather. Sensitive to noise, pain, cold. Every hurt festers. Silica headaches need heat, and wrapping up. Foot-sweats: especially foul: ailments from suppressed foot- sweat. Hippozaeninum Tubercles and abscesses in kidneys. (Glanders) Albuminuria; also leucine and tyrosine. "Used in a large number of cases involving low forms of suppuration and catarrh, malignant ulcerations and swellings, abscesses and enlarged glands." Clarke.

Stramonium

Kidneys secrete less urine or none, in acute diseases, in children, in eruptive fevers etc. Great desire to urinate, though secretion is suppressed. Urine dribbles away very slowly and feebly. Retention: sensation urine could not be passed, because of narrowness of urethra. After straining, a few drops are passed. Better after drinking vinegar.

Streptococcin

?Scarlatinum or Streptococcin as an intercurrent remedy in cases that have followed an attack of scarlet fever. After scarlet fever, or acute tonsillitis.

Sulphur

?Violent pain kidney region after long stooping. Chronic nephritis, especially. Secretions burn and redden orifices: eyelids, anus, etc. 11 a.m. emptiness and hunger. 11 a.m. emptiness and hunger. Burning soles at night: puts them out. Theorizing: the ragged philosopher."

Terebinthinum

"Congestive kidneys, with dull aching, and smoky-looking urine." Violent burning and drawing pains in kidneys, bladder and urethra. Pressure in kidneys when sitting; relieved by motion. Stiff all over; heaviness and pains in region of kidneys. Renal disease producing dropsy. Rapid attack with lumbar pain. Urine greatly diminished: loaded with albumen: contains casts and blood. Suppressed. Urine smoky: with "coffee grounds" or thick, slimy, sediment. Smells of violets. Early scarlatinal nephritis. Tongue smooth glossy, red. Or a coating which peels in patches. Tereb. has purpuric conditions: ecchymoses. "Haemorrhages from all outlets, especially in connection with urinary or kidney troubles." Nash. Ascites with anasarca, in organic lesions of kidneys.

Thuja.

Kidneys inflamed: feet swollen. Urine: profuse, light yellow: contains sugar: foams, scanty, exceedingly dark: deposits. brown mucus. Pain left kidney to epigastrium. Especially useful in gonorrhoeal, or "Vaccinosis" cases.

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